Alina V. Protasova, Postgraduate student, Samara National Research University (34 Moskovskoye highway, Samara, Russia), E-mail: Intelegentna@rambler.ru
Background. The right to replace military service with an alternative one in accordance with religious beliefs is legally enshrined in the legislation of the Russian Federation. The study of the formation and development of the military service history by citizens in the first years of Soviet power is necessary for a full understanding of state-religious relations in modern Russia and their further improvement. The purpose of this work is to study the evolution of exemption from military service for religious convictions of Christian sectarians in the first years of Soviet power in 1917–1924.
Materials and methods. The main documents for the study were the data of the Samara Regional State Archive of Social and Political History, as well as published sources. The methodological basis of the research was formed by general scientific and special historical research methods. The leading approach in the work was the principle of the history of everyday life, based on the paradigm of Michel de Certeau. The work also applies such a methodological approach as a new social history, which makes it possible to identify the survival practices of sectarians who, due to their religious beliefs, cannot take up arms and carry out military service; a synergistic approach, meaning the interconnection of such subjects as sectarian religious organizations and Soviet power.
Results. The process of gradual liberation from military service for religious convictions of sectarians of Christian confessions in Soviet Russia, building partnerships between the authorities and sectarian organizations in the specified chronological period is investigated. The practice of survival of sectarian religious organizations in the conditions of ideological breakdown and restructuring of society towards the ideals of Marxism is noted.
Conclusions. An analysis of the peculiarities of the formation of Soviet legislation in relation to military service by Christian sectarians makes it possible to trace the construction of the entire line of state-confessional relations in Soviet society. It consisted in the formation of a special course for rapprochement with sectarian organizations and in an effort to form partnerships with them to strengthen the position of Soviet power. This made it possible to strengthen the position of the new government and give time for these religious organizations to adapt to the post-revolutionary realities of an atheist society. Undoubtedly, the study of this problem contributes to the identification of new aspects in the study of the problems of Soviet history.
conscription, everyday practices, “sectarianism”, spiritual Christianity, Soviet power, military service, ideology
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